In a study of melatonin gummy products purchased in the U.S., “the great majority … were inaccurately labeled, with most products exceeding the declared amount of melatonin and CBD,” the investigators write. “Given these findings, clinicians should advise parents that pediatric use of melatonin gummies may result in ingestion of unpredictable quantities of melatonin and CBD.”
Using the NIH Dietary Supplement Label Database, the authors identified 30 unique brands available for purchase online. Products labeled as containing “melatonin” were reconstituted in methanol and an aqueous mixture of acetonitrile-methanol and then analyzed for the presence and quantity of melatonin, CBD, and serotonin using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography–photodiode array analyses.
“Of the 30 melatonin gummy brands meeting the inclusion criteria, 4 were unavailable for purchase and 1 did not contain ‘melatonin’ on the actual label; therefore, 25 products were analyzed,” write the authors. “One product did not contain detectable levels of melatonin but did contain 31.3 mg of CBD. In the remaining products, the quantity of melatonin ranged from 1.3 mg to 13.1 mg per serving size. In products that contained melatonin, the actual quantity of melatonin ranged from 74% to 347% of the labeled quantity. Twenty-two of 25 products (88%) were inaccurately labeled, and only 3 products (12%) contained a quantity of melatonin that was within ±10% of the declared quantity. Five products declared CBD as an ingredient, and the quantity of CBD ranged from 10.6 mg to 31.3 mg per serving. The actual quantity of CBD ranged from 104% to 118% of the labeled quantity. Serotonin was not detected in any product.”