Combined with clinical risk factors, a protein score was significantly associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in primary and secondary events populations, according to a retrospective analysis from Iceland. The investigators derived protein risk scores based on 4,963 plasma protein levels; polygenic risk scores for coronary artery disease and stroke; and clinical risk factors that included age, sex, statin use, hypertension treatment, type 2 diabetes, body mass index, and smoking status at the time of plasma sampling.
“In the primary event population test set (4,018 individuals [59.0% women]; 465 events; median follow-up, 15.8 years), the protein risk score had a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.93 per SD (95% CI, 1.75 to 2.13),” the authors write. “Addition of protein risk score and polygenic risk scores significantly increased the C index when added to a clinical risk factor model (C index change, 0.022 [95% CI, 0.007 to 0.038]). Addition of the protein risk score alone to a clinical risk factor model also led to a significantly increased C index (difference, 0.014 [95% CI, 0.002 to 0.028]). Among White individuals in the secondary event population (6,307 participants; 432 events; median follow-up, 2.2 years), the protein risk score had an HR of 1.62 per SD (95% CI, 1.48 to 1.79) and significantly increased C index when added to a clinical risk factor model (C index change, 0.026 [95% CI, 0.011 to 0.042]). The protein risk score was significantly associated with major adverse cardiovascular events among individuals of African and Asian ancestries in the secondary event population.”