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Gestational Diabetes Mellitus & Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases

In a systematic review and meta-analysis of 15 studies with 513,324 women, investigators conclude that “gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risks of overall and type-specific cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases that cannot be solely attributed to conventional cardiovascular risk factors or subsequent diabetes.” The quality of evidence from these studies was judged low to very low by the investigators.

“Compared with women without gestational diabetes mellitus, women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus showed a 45% increased risk of overall cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (risk ratio 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.36 to 1.53), 72% for cardiovascular diseases (1.72, 1.40 to 2.11), and 40% for cerebrovascular diseases (1.40, 1.29 to 1.51),” the authors write. “Women with gestational diabetes mellitus showed increased risks of incident coronary artery diseases (1.40, 1.18 to 1.65), myocardial infarction (1.74, 1.37 to 2.20), heart failure (1.62, 1.29 to 2.05), angina pectoris (2.27, 1.79 to 2.87), cardiovascular procedures (1.87, 1.34 to 2.62), stroke (1.45, 1.29 to 1.63), and ischaemic stroke (1.49, 1.29 to 1.71). The risk of venous thromboembolism was observed to increase by 28% in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (1.28, 1.13 to 1.46).… The risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases was … attenuated but remained significant when restricted to women who did not develop subsequent overt diabetes (all gestational diabetes mellitus: 1.45, 1.33 to 1.59, gestational diabetes mellitus without subsequent diabetes: 1.09, 1.06 to 1.13).”

Source: BMJ