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Drug Interactions in Management of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

The challenges of anticipating drug-drug interactions affecting new agents for pulmonary arterial hypertension that have not undergone extensive drug interaction studies are assessed in a clinical review: “The management of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has become more complex in recent years because of increased pharmacotherapy options and longer patient survival with increasing numbers of comorbidities. As such, more opportunities exist for drug-drug interactions between PAH-targeted medications and medications potentially used to treat comorbid conditions. In this review, we provide an overview of pharmaceutical metabolism by cytochrome P450 and discuss important drug-drug interactions for the 14 Food and Drug Administration-approved medications for PAH in the nitric oxide (NO), endothelin, and prostacyclin pathways. Among the targets in the NO pathway (sildenafil, tadalafil, and riociguat), important interactions with nitrates, protease inhibitors, and other phosphodiesterase inhibitors can cause profound hypotension. In the endothelin pathway, bosentan is associated with more drug interactions via CYP3A4 inhibition; macitentan and ambrisentan have fewer interactions of note. Although the parenteral therapies in the prostacyclin pathway bypass significant liver metabolism and avoid drug interactions, selexipag and oral treprostinil may exhibit interactions with CYP2C8 inhibitors such as gemfibrozil and clopidogrel, which can raise drug levels. Finally, we provide a framework for identifying potential drug-drug interactions and avoiding errors.”

Source: Chest